top of page

Glossary Of Terms


A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  J  K  L  M  O  P  Q  R  T  U  W  Y  Z



Aag                        Fire (pg. 19 Akaal Ustat DG)

Aasan                   Yogic posture, place or seat to sit in a particular aasan

Aasraa                  Protection or backing , aasraa de na, to give protection

Agny                     Astra Type of fire tipped dart discharged horizontal from a bamboo

Agny Purana        The art of war using fire as ascribed in the different purans

Ajamal                   A sinful man who, on his death bed called his son Narayan ( Name of God ) and was taken to heaven by God   


Akal                       God


Akarna Dhanur Asan    The shooting bow posture


Akal Ustat             In praise of the Timeless Being'  the 2nd composition of the Dasam Granth. (271 and a half verses, 10 savaiyas (quarters) . 

Arjun                     One of the five brothers of King Pandu who triumphantly transferred the seat of government to Indraprashhhtha, which is                                 now the site of modern Delhi ) In the epic of Mahabharata

Ashtang Yoga      Patanjali's system of Yoga-called Ashtang (eight fold) Yoga. based on eight principles pg35-DG

1. Yama                Practice of nonviolence, truthfulness, non-covetousness, chastity and not receiving anything from another.

2. Niyama             Austerity, contentment, purity and worship of God

3. Asana               Postures and physical exercise to keep the body healthy

4. Pranayama      Control and purification of breathing

5. Pratyahara       Control of sense-organs by one's will

6. Dharna             Holding the mind on some point or idea

7. Dhyana Meditation on a deity or God

8. SamadhiCondition of trance. Oneness with God


Atash-Baz            Fireworks / rockets or weapons of fire ( see also Agny astra )


Back to top



Bacjitar Natak    'The wondrous Drama' - An autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in poetic form (pg54 DG) The 3rd order in the Dasam                                 Granth. ( total of 14 chapters - detailing the Eulogization of Kal, the dynasty of the Gurus )

Backie                  Battle Axe - single axe blade with an extended spear head following the shaft of the weapon 

Bag'hnak          Tiger Claw - Various types of concealed clawed hand held weapon consisting of may be 3, 4,or 5 sharpened steel claws                                attached to joining plates of steel with two or four rings for the insertion of  fingers of the hand held as a fist.. ( Sivaji - founder                          of the Mahratta Empire , used this concealed weapon to kill his enemy Abdalla Khan) The Tiger Claw is also worn by the                                Sikh warriors on the Dastar Bunnga ( traditional turban worn by the Sikhs) along with various other weapons like the war                                  quoits and small daggers 


Barchha          A lance used either on horseback or by foot soldiers

Beeraa            To accept a challenge or a challenging task

Beer Vidya      To obtain, gain knowledge of training in the art of warfare

Shastar Vidya dha abysa          Training in the art of using weapons


Bhoome         Battle field , ground, area


Bhujang asana                           The Cobra position


Bias               An Indian Sage, also called Vyas  


BichhwaDagger         name given to a scorpion: small doubly curved blade, usually used in a ice pick grip of the hand while fighting.


Bir Aahsan                 The sitting position of warriors , and of kings in their courts


Brahama                    Known as the Creator, The first of the Hindu Trinity ( 2nd king ) see Kalket (Bachitra Natak Chp2)


Back to top




Chak Nanaki            The land of Makhowal bought by Guru Tegh Bahadur from Kehloor (Better known as Anandpur Sahib-1665 A.D)

Chakra asan             The wheel position

Chakram / Chakar   War Quoits as worn and used by the Sikh warriors and used by Arjun  ( See Arjun ) Vary in dimension from as little as 2inches to 12 inches or more. Thrown towards the victim with great precision and accuracy. 


Chooknaa                 To pick up or retrieve


Back to top




Daan Vir                    A giver of donations, alms charity, benefaction


Daiaa Vir                   One who is compassionate, gracious, merciful, full of kindness and sympathy


Dal                              An organized group of people, an armed force, and army troop of fighting soldiers


Damaamaa               Large Kettle drum


Dand                          A form of physical sitting and standing exercise


Dasam Granth          The great poetic work, rich in spiritual conceptualization, philosophy vision and Imaginative sublimity. By the Tenth Master of the Sikhs Guru Gobind Singh.


Dastana                     Arm guards which were worn for protection against bladed weapons covering the hand and forearm, usually of metal and chain mail.


Dattatriya                   Datta for short - founder of the Sanyasis (Ascetics ) sect. ( Pg 715- Tatees Savaiye DG )


Dhal                           Circular Shield made from either steel, sambur skin, buffalo, nylghau, elephant, or rhinoceros hide. Can be of                                       various size depending on it use and purpose. 


Dhal Bafta                 Shield used by Brahmins who object using anything made from animal skins. Shield is made of forty folds of                                         silk which is then painted and decorated.


Dhanur Veda             The science of Bows as ascribed in different 'puranas' containing allusions to the art of war


Dharam                      The way of Righteousness-Spirituality (pg 57 Bachitar Natak .42 DG ) 


Dharam Vir                A great warrior who is willing to fight for righteousness in the name of religion, faith, duty and belief.


Dhru                           An ancient Indian child-saint. Son of King Uttanpada


Back to top





Back to top




Fatah                          Victory, success, triumph-salutation or greeting


Flail                            weapon consisting of one or two iron balls attached to metal chains with one shaft. Used by aboriginal and non-Aryan    tribes of central India. Commonly seen in hand of the Nihang’s 


Feringha                    Large war cannon


Back to top





Gatka                          The first stage of Gadha Yuddh (form of stick fighting) which is aided with a stick (Soti) usually 3ft in length, originally covered with leather and a well-padded hilt. Aided with a small leather shield called a Fari., which can be held in either hand. Two students then train in dual combat using the Fari Soti
as their weapons of defines and offence in techniques of Gadha Yudh.


Gadha                        Also known termed as Madhgar type of wooden clubs of various sizes, used in pairs for twirling around the upper region of the body by using circular movements of the arms and shoulder for balance, coordination and strength.


Garz                            Fighting Mace : Many small sharp bladed heads fixed in a circular form with shaft (BFS Collection) 


Gajaan                       Elephant (holding a wild elephant at bay was regarded as a great and glorious feat of a warrior     (pg14 Tav-Prasaad Savaiye DG )


Ganika                       A prostitute whom a saint gave a parrot which could utter  'RAM' She remembered the parrots word RAM which stands for GOD , at the time of her death and was thus saved from her sins.


Gupti                          A sword stick: 


Gurj / Garz                  Fighting club: Known as a Mace: Globular head of steel on a round or octagonal steel shaft ( as used by the sixth Guru - Guru Hargobind Ji ( weapon of the Mahomedan period )Also used by warriors in the epic of Ramayana and Mahabharata


Back to top




Haath                         The hands of a person


Haath Chukna         To strike or beat  with the hands


Halla                           To attack or assault, Halla Karan


Harvaaunaa              To cause defeat


Hathiaar                     Weapons of an army, soldier or tools and instruments 


Hatnaa                       To go back, with draw, give way


Hukam                       The divine law of all creation, Order, command mandate.


Back to top




Ik One,                        signifying unity, uniformity or continuity, uniformly.


Indra                           King of Heaven, also known as the God of Rain


Insaan                        Man, mankind, a virtuous person


Back to top






Jhatkaa                       Slaughtering by one stroke of the sword.


Jamdhar                     Broad- Dagger Curved- Sanscrit -Yama  Dhara-Death Bringer ( period -Akbar )


Jamdhar Katari         Similar to the katar but with a forked tip (Nepalese - Also used during the time of (Akbar)


Jap Sahib                   Part of the daily prayers of every Sikh.( 199 verses ) An introductory in the Dasam Granth  Describes the numerous names given and remembered as God.


Jatta                Growth of matted locks on the head (pg715 44 Savaiye (tatees Saviye DG)


Jatis                             A sect who remain celibate and keep away from women. ( pg. 13 - DG )


Back to top





Kal                               The Lord - creator of the cosmos through Oankar (Bachitar Natak Chp 2 DG )  


Kal                              The timeless one – death


Kaldhuj                      (Maha Vishnu) the 4rth king of whom descended the whole world (Bachitar Natak chp2 verse11)


Kali                             Goddess of death


Kalket                         (Brahma) the 2nd King


Karma                        Action, deed, destiny or fate


Kaman                       The archers Bow


Kaloo                          The dark age (see Kalyug )


Kalsen                       ( Vishnu ) The first king all beautiful and powerful of the cosmos 


Kalyug                       The dark age - period of sin and corruption (pg54 Bachitar Natak DG )


Karim                          Means - Good - Referred to as GOD by Muslims (pg 19 Akaal Ustat DG)


Karta                            Means Creator - Referred to as GOD by Hindus (pg 19 Akaal Ustat DG )


Katar                           A quadrangular deeply grooved blade which thickness at the point with a hilt and side guards which follow

                                    along the forearm, Used in close combat to penetrate chain mail or armor of the opponent. Length can vary                                         from as little as 3 inches to more than 15 inches ( used by the Minas - aborigines from the Rajputana hills, also

                                     a weapon commonly used by Sikh warriors. and by the soldiers during Akbars reign. Listed in the arms of the

                                     Mahratta’s. A weapon also carried by the Bards of Guzerat


Katebas                     Reference to the Semitic scriptures, In total four  (pg 715 Tatees Savaiye DG )

  1. JABUR  - of Prophet Daud ( David)

2. TOHRA- of Prophet Musa ( Moses)

3. BIBLE - of Prophet Christ

4. QURAN- of Prophet Mohammed


Khanjar                       Dagger - typically a two edged curved blade with a hilt of jade or stone shaped rather like the head of a parrot


Krurvarsh                   (Shiva ) the third King   


Kirpa                           Merciful 


Krishna                      Is called Murar - The killer of the demon Mur 


Krishna                       Lord Krishna : The Charioteer of Arjun’s chariot during the War of Mahabharata


Krishna                       Lord Krishna : The son of Devki, regarded as an incarnation of God by the Hindus 


Back to top




Laraaee                     To clash or fight, a battle


Lachak                       Flexible, resilience


Lakshmi                     Goddess of wealth and the great light


Larnaa                       To fight with some one, to struggle


Back to top




Maidaan                    An open field or area of land 


Man                            Mind, soul, heart, desire, wish or intention


Massands                  Organisation of Sikh missionaries started by Guru Ram Das, abolished by Guru Gobind Singh because the massands had become corrupt. (pg 715 Tatees Savaiye DG )


Mastool                      State of dismay. Mastool Karnaa - to put someone in dismay


Mirja Beg                   Name of the messenger who destroyed the homes of the cowards who ran away from the Guru during the arrival of the prince of Aurangzeb in Punjab    (Chapter 13 Bachitra Natak DG)


Mahavishnu             see Kaldhuj


Maru                           Parrying Shield: Shield of metal with antelope horns tipped with brass (BFS Collection) Used by Hindu Fakirs


Back to top





Nagaara                     The war drum (kettle drum) carried and played during battle on horse or camel back. Ranjit Nagaara


Nag                             Snake ( Cobra )


Nama                         To bow in humbleness, welcome some one ( Parnam )


Narad                         An Indian saint ( said to be the author of Bhakti Sutra )


Nataraj asan             The pose of Siva


Nau niddha               The nine treasures of material and spiritual life ( prab ke simran rid sidh nau nid ) By repeating the name of God you gain the 9 treasures of life


Neza                           Long spear



Back to top




Back to top




Paatshaah                A king, emperor, sovereign


Paathshaahee         Kingship, empire, imperial rule


Pada Hasth Asan    the standing forward bend


Pahlwan                    Used to describe an athlete , wrestler , or strong fighter


Parmesar                   Name given to God (pg57 Bachitar Natak . 32 DG )


Pech Kabaz              Dagger - Either a straight or pointed one edged blade with either a broad curved or straight back, the hilt can be of either ivory, walrus tooth or metal


Praan                         Life energy, breath Praan leh na to take some one’s life


Prahlad                     An Indian saint harassed by his father Harnakash. Vishnu appeared from a pillar in the form of a  man-lion and                                    tore Harnakash to pieces.


Prasur                      An ancient Indian saint


Puranas                   The ancient Hindu Books of fiction, war fare and mythology



Back to top





Back to top





R'ad Andaz               Form of grenades used during battle

Rahim                        Means - Compassionate- Referred to as God by Muslims (pg19 Akaal Ustat DG)


Razak                         Means - Sustainer -Referred to as God by Muslims (pg19 Akaal Ustat DG )   


Riddhi                        Miraculous powers    ( Riddhi Sidhi )


Roknaa                      To stop or obstruct interception

Vaar roknaa              to stop an attack


Rumna                       An Indian Saint (also called Lomahra Khan) - the disciple of saint Vyas



Back to top




Safajang                    Tomahawk - Battle axe


Sarabkal                    The ever - existent Lord


Saravagas                 A sect of Jains who deliberately remain dirty. (pg 13 - DG)




Shashpar                  Name given to a six bladed maze


Shastras                    The six books of Indian philosophy


Shesh Nag                The mythological multi-hooded cobra said to be the king of the nether world.


Sidhi                           Miraculous powers


Shiva                          Known as the Destroyer. The third of the Hindu trinity


Siddhas                     Yogis who possess occult powers ( pg. 35 DG )


Simritis                       Traditional Law books of the Hindus


Suddhs                      A sect who keep very clean ( pg. 13 - DG )


Surya Namaskar      The sun salutation


Sri                               Glorious


Swaas                        Breath, respiration


Back to top





Tabar                          Battle Axe - with various circular, crescent, knife shaped blades with either a wooden shaft or hollow metal shaft which could conceal a small dagger. ( used as early as the times of the invasions of the Aboriginal and non-Aryan tribes- to the present times )


Tabar                          Zaghnol  Double axe ( one end is wide and the other blade is narrow and curved like a claw


Takhsh Andaz          Rockets of destruction which were propelled against the enemy's during battle


Tarkash                      Quivers - used to hold arrows


Tir                                Arrows used with the Bow (usually made from bamboo shaft with various types of metal heads) used from the earliest invasions to the present time by all invaders and conquers of India (BFS collection)


Tir - O- Tarkash         Arrows and Quiver


Transmigration         Cycle of birth-death-rebirth


Trigun                                    The Three states of the mind which causes people to do work (pg709 42 Shabad Hazare Ramkali 3.1 DG)

1. Rajas - implies energy, desire and attachment ( causes one to work )

2. Tamas- implies ignorance and sloth ( makes one lazy )

3. Satva- implies goodness and purity and promotes the pursuit of knowledge, creative arts and healthy living


Trikun asan               The triangle pose


Turang                       Horse


Back to top




Ustati                          Praise of God , the eulogy of God


Back to top




Vaar                            To attack, strike a blow, or too turn


Vasudev                    Father of  Lord Krishna


Vedas                         The four scriptures of the Hindu religion


Vikheter                     A fighter in the field of battle


Vir                               Brother ( see also Yuddh Vir, Dya Vir, Daan Vir, Dharam Vir )


Vishnu                       Known as the sustainer or preserver. Second of the Hindu trinity.       


Vishnu                       Also Called Madhsudan - the killer of the demon Madhu  


Back to top






Back to top




Back to top



Yama                           A descriptive name given to the Mughals


Yogis                            A sect who practice austerities, physical and meditational exercises.


Yuddha                        A male fighter


Yuddh                          War, Battle, Combat, hostilities –

Dharam Yuddh,          The battle for righteousness Fight,


yuddh karna kise nal'  fighting, to battle against someone 


Yuddh Vir                    Gallant, brave , valiant warrior-fighter


Yug                               An era, Period


Back to top



Zafar Namah               The Letter of Victory, written by Guru Gobind Singh and addressed to Aurungzeb
                                      (pg1392 DG)


Zarbuzan                     Name given to a small war cannon


Zirah Baktar                Coat of chain mail: usually made from unriveted links of steel, brass or copper arranged in various designs.


Zirih                             Chain Mail 


Back to top











Index A
Index B
Anchor C
Anchor D
Anchor E
Anchor F
Anchor G
Anchor H
Anchor I
Anchor J
Anchor K
Anchor L
Anchor M
Anchor N
Anchor O
Anchor P
Anchor Q
Anchor R
Anchor S
Anchor T
Anchor U
Anchor V
Anchor W
Anchor X
Anchor Y
Anchor Z
bottom of page